Technology is the combination of any new techniques, tools, systems, and practices used in the creation of new products or services or in the achievement of specific goals, for instance scientific research Xfinity store near me. The word “technology” was first used by American psychiatrist W. Edwards Deming. In his book ” Principles of Engineering Organization,” he used the term “technology” for the whole collection of knowledge about how people and organizations can work better together. Deming’s work led to the development of the Theory of Constraints, which has been applied in many management theories.
However, there is a problem with using the word technology in all contexts. Today, technology is applied so broadly that it is not easy to distinguish between different types of technological systems and activities. To make matters worse, technology sometimes becomes an excuse for bad policy, wasteful use of human capital, or inadequate scientific knowledge. A typical example is the Greek notion that technological progress is tantamount to social progress, which is essentially political rhetoric. Thus, a form of systematic treatment of technology is needed that would take into account the multiple uses of technological systems.
One such systematic approach to technology was pioneered by twentieth century geographer W. E. F. Gardiner. He distinguished two distinct phases of technological systems, either technological and economic, or cultural and technological systems. Economic technological systems develop through the accumulation of knowledge and their disbursement. A typical economic technological system consists of, for instance, new machines and innovations that serve to increase output; information technology, which Gardiner thought was a major force behind the great changes in modern Greece; and knowledge management or cognitive systems, which, in order to be efficient, must be capable of storing and disseminating vast amounts of data. Cultural technological systems are rooted in values, practices, and institutions that have developed over time and vary widely from society to society.
Gardiner’s concept of technicity was then expanded upon by Leo Tolstoy, who added a third phase, namely the role of technology as a social phenomenon. According to Tolstoy, technological systems are inherently progressive, even clockwork-like, as they help with the extension of cooperation, the improvement of standards of living, and the achievement of greater equality. But he denied the possibility of material objects being considered as such, seeing the creation of material objects as being a process, an accumulation of various forms of energy, a modification of nature, a creation rather than an end result of the human creativity. Gardiner on the other hand saw the importance of technological systems as a process of increasing production, using the already existing productive forces, and the development of new forms of interaction based on interaction of people rather than on the isolation of things. In this way, according to him, culture could be understood not as a product of the human mind but as a product of the social body, whose members interact and whose values, practices, and beliefs determine the forms of expression of that body.
Philosophy of technology is still largely related to the subject of applied science. The differences between the two are many. Applied science usually aims at producing practical knowledge, whereas philosophy of technology tends more towards justifying particular choices in terms of their effect on society and the environment. Philosophy of technology cannot, however, completely separate the area of application from its reflective aspect. A company’s management may decide to use technology in order to build a more efficient production system, or it may choose to design its machinery and software in order to make the most of the available resources.
It seems that we are still struggling with the transition between philosophy of technology and applied science. Some scholars believe that it is inevitable. In a time when information is available to virtually everyone, our culture will inevitably require a system of technological organization and communication. This will then have to be transmitted and absorbed through a social understanding of value systems, cultures, and power relationships.